Base material: (check with local supplier) should be 3/4” or 1/2” gravel including particle sizes down to fine dust. 1” depth of compacted base weighs approximately 1200 lbs. Per 100 sq.ft. (9.3 sq. Meters). Always add 5-10% for edges and miscellaneous areas.
Sand: (coarse concrete sand or other suitable bedding material) 1” depth, approximately 900 lbs. Per 100 sq. Ft. Figure extra 5% for jointing sand.
Pavers: Do not forget to factor any soldier course (bordering) pavers in your calculations. You will need to know how many linear feet of project perimeter.
PAVE EDGE: steel spikes (10” length x 3/8” diameter)
- Grade stakes
- Wide blade masons chisel
- Masons string (twine)
- Stiff bristle street broom
- 3-5 pound hammer
- Hard tooth garden rake
- Chalk line
- 25 ft. Measure tape
- 1" diameter sand screed guides (pipe, wood, etc.)
- Sand screed board 6-8 ft. Length of a 2”x 4” or 2”x 6”
- Small pry bar
- 4 ft. Level
- Flat shovel for sand
- Marking crayon or chalk
- 3hp to 5hp plate compactor (not a jumping jack)
- Mason diamond saw
(Look in Yellow Pages for local contractor)
- 3hp to 5hp plate compactor
(not a jumping jack)
- Mason diamond saw
area you intend to pave. Determine square footage by multiplying
(length x width= square footage); add 5% for breakage and cutting.
Measure lineal feet of open edges, those not up against a permanent
structure such as a house, etc. This will indicate lineal footage
of PAVE EDGE required. Draw a plan on a piece of
paper showing all important dimensions. Take this plan to your
supplier, so that he can help you determine the proper amount
of materials needed to complete your project.
the 3-4-5 triangle method to determine a perpendicular line, measure
parallel lines from the perpendicular line to establish a boundary.
Place stakes every 4 to 6 feet and at the corners. These stakes
should be 8 outside of the planned edge of the pavers.
You can check to make sure an area is square by making
sure both sets of cross corners measure the exact same distance.
Before any digging call your local utility companies to locate
any underground lines.
a flat shovel, cut evenly to remove sod/dirt to a depth of at
least 71/8 (18cm) to allow room for 23/8 (6cm) paver,
3/4 (20m) compacted sand, minimum of 2 (5cm) compacted
crushed stone base (more if soil is very soft). If the house is
of new construction, there might be potential for settling next
to the foundation. We suggest you increase base thickness to 6
(15cm) or total excavation of 9 (23cm) within 2 feet (1
meter) of new foundation. Excavation should be 6 (15cm)
wider on sides where PAVE EDGE
- Edge Restraint is to be used.
This is very
important. The more time and effort you put into the preparation
of the base, the better the project and the longer it will last.
Use either 3/4 (19mm) or 1/2 (13mm) graded base material
that includes sizes down to fine dust. This material is easier
to compact and will give a tight close knit surface.
run your plate compactor over the excavated soil (make sure no
soil gets stuck to the bottom of the plate tamper).
Each pass should overlap the previous one by about 4. Now,
spread your gravel base material out evenly in about 2 layers.
If material is dry and dusty, use a garden hose to thoroughly
wet it down (do not get too wet); this helps make the gravel faster
to compact and easier to rake. Starting around the outer perimeter,
start with the plate compactor and again overlap each pass about
4 working towards the center. You should make at least two
complete overlapping passes for each layer. Use your hard tooth
garden rake to rake out any unevenness.Try spreading material
with the rake turned upside down (teeth pointing up).
with the base, it should be very smooth and flat. If you were
to put a straight edge flat on the surface, there should be no
more than 3/8 (1cm maximum) gap anywhere along the straight
edge and the base.
Slope and Grade
are important to ensure proper run-off. It is best to plan at
least a 1/4 (6mm) per foot drop, but try not to exceed 1/2
(12mm) per foot.
SAND SETTING BED
It is important to keep your sand dry. Always keep your sand covered
in case of rain.
attempt to level any area or surface irregularities with the sand
bedding. This will result in an uneven surface and unwanted settling.
screed guides (1 (25mm) electrical conduit, 1 strips
of wood or other suitable rigid 1 guide) 4 to 6
apart and parallel. Work from side to side; moving your screed
guides, screed 10 sections of sand. You will use your 6
ft. to 8 ft. long 2x 6 screeding board to loosely
spread the sand and to strike off any excess. DO NOT walk
on or work from your screeded sand. Do not worry about voids that
screed guides have left after you have removed them. You will
lightly fill them with sand and trowel them smooth as you are
laying the pavers.
LAYING THE PAVERS (Instructions for Small Areas Only)
a permanent edge such as a house, driveway, or a piece of PAVE
lay your first paver starting from either side (as you start laying
pavers, work from right to left, then left to right and so on,
one to two rows of pavers at a time). Set the pavers lightly onto
the sand never press them or hammer them in. Be sure to allow
6 (15cm) to install PAVE
on open sides later. If you are starting with PAVE
as a starting point (read # 7 now), every 4 feet or so run a string
line across the front of the laying edge. If there are some pavers
lagging behind, go back about 3 rows of pavers and using a small
pry bar, wedge between the pavers and pry the pavers forward until
they are in line again. Do not worry too much about gaps at this
point; you should try to spread the wide gaps between a couple
of rows of pavers; they should even out during tamping later.
Many different laying patterns are possible, but herringbone provides
the best surface interlock.
pavers hand tight, but
DO NOT use a hammer to adjust the pavers or set them. If you are
doing the project over a couple of days, cover the entire area
with plastic overnight if rain is expected. Do not lay pavers
over the 6 (15cm) extended base area where PAVE
is to be set later.
CUTTING THE PAVERS
If any pavers
need to be cut, mark the cuts with a crayon or chalk and cut with
a masonry saw or splitter.
On sides where PAVE EDGE is to be installed later
you can place the edging after laying the pavers to reduce the
amount of cutting. Allow for up to 1/4 (6mm) gap between
the cut paver and the PAVE EDGE or permanent structure.
You will fill this with sand later. You should use a diamond blade
mason saw, or a PAVERSPLITTER.
PAVE EDGE Installation
not only holds the Pavers, but the sand as well.
BEFORE SAND SCREEDING
Snap chalk line on
base material before you screed sand if you are going to start
laying your pavers from a PAVE EDGE line first.
Spike edging so that the chalk line remains visible. Spike every
2 feet with 10 (25cm) x 3 /8 (1cm) diameter steel
landscape spike (available at most building supply stores).
(AFTER PAVERS HAVE BEEN LAID)
have completed the laying of pavers on the sand, you may finish
placing the PAVE EDGE
restraints. First, using a trowel, cut straight down the side
of the pavers into the sand down to the base and pull back the
sand. Be careful not to scrape up the base material.
the edging flat onto the base, push the PAVE
EDGE frost heave
lip under the sand (between the bedding sand and the gravel base),
using a hammer to tap against the back of the PAVE EDGE
until the edging is tight to the pavers. Now, spike the edging
approximately every 2 ft. Pound the spikes in until the head of
the spike is touching the edging (be careful not to drive the
spike through the edging.
USING PAVE EDGE RIGID FOR RADIUS AREAS
a hacksaw, kerf cut the backside of the PAVE
Rigid to make either inside or an outside radius. This will require
either a straight cut or a V-shaped cut.
the radius, the more frequent the cuts; but we normally suggest
every 6 to 8 inches. For walks and patios, spike every 12 to 18
inches along a radius.
USING PAVE EDGE FLEXIBLE FOR RADIUS AREAS
Not available at all locations.
FLEXIBLE allows for easy radius work. Space back supports about
6-8 inches apart. For walks and patios, we suggest spiking at
least every other back support.
JOINING SECTIONS OF PAVE EDGE
Should you need a longer continuous section of PAVE EDGE
than available, connect sections with a 5 length of 3/4
round PVC pipe by inserting it into the inner cavity as shown.
Connector pipe should be available upon request from your PAVE
THE FINAL STEP
that you have now laid all your pavers, placed and spiked all
your PAVE EDGE,
you are now ready for the last step.
During this step the pavers will settle in about 1/4"
lower during compaction (only if 1"
loose screeded sand has been used). This should be
their final height.
Sweep off any debris or loose sand that may be on the
Using a vibratory plate compactor, 3 HP to 5 HP, you should make
at least two passes over the pavers.
Starting around the perimeter and working inward, overlap each
pass 2 to 4 inches. Make the second pass at a 45 angle to your
first. The first pass of the compactor will accomplish the following:
- will level all the pavers
- compact the sand bedding course
- force sand up into the joint
Repeat Step B if pavers are not yet level and flat.
Using a DRY medium or coarse washed sand for the joints, spread
a thin uniform layer of jointing sand over the surface. Use a
stiff bristle street broom and sweep back and forth over the entire
pavement until sand has stopped falling into joints.
Now, alternating between tamping and sweeping, continue to work
the material into the joint. If when you make a pass with the
plate compactor no more joints open up, you are then finished.
It is important that you completely fill the joints with sand.
How many passes this process takes is mostly dependant on how
dry the joint sand is. This process can be accomplished in as
few as 2-3 passes with compactor and broom or in excess of 10+
if you have damp sand.
Sweep Off all excess sand and backfill edges with top soil and
sod or seed. (Be
sure to water freshly screeded or sodded areas regularly).
- YOU have now installed a maintenance free pavement for your
patio or walkway. Your efforts are now permanent for you to enjoy
for a long time to come.
© PAVE TECH, INC. All Rights Reserved.